Amos Noyes Currier was born in Canaan, New Hampshire, on October 13, 1832. He attended Kimball Union Academy at Meriden, New Hampshire. He received his A.B. and A.M. degrees from Dartmouth College in 1856 and 1859.
In 1857, Amos Currier was professor of ancient languages (Latin and Greek) at Central University of Iowa, in Pella, Iowa. According to the Souvenir and Annual for 1881-82, Currier enlisted as a private in the 8th Iowa Infantry in August 1861. He was taken prisoner at Pittsburgh Landing in April 1862, where he remained until he was exchanged in 1863. Currier served during the remainder of the war in the 11th Missouri regiment as commissary. When the Civil War ended in 1865, he returned to his teaching position at Central University of Iowa
Currier was named head of ancient languages and literature at the State University of Iowa in 1867. When the department became too large in 1869 for one professor to administer, Currier was named head of Latin language and literature, while Professor Leonard F. Parker was named head of Greek language. In addition to these duties, Currier served as University Librarian 1870-1879. He was named dean of Collegiate Department in 1888, which was renamed the College of Liberal Arts in 1900. Amos Noyes Currier served as the interim University of Iowa President during 1898 to 1899, following the death of President Charles A. Schaeffer and before George E. MacLean took office.
Amos Currier married Celia A. Moore of Vienna, Ohio, in September 1868. The couple met at Pella, where she taught mathematics. They had a son, Albert, and a daughter, Mrs. Roy Cook. Celia taught mathematics and Latin at S.U.I. from 1867 to 1874 and was an assistant to her husband for one year during this time. Amos Currier had served the University 40 years when he acquired emeritus status in 1907. He died of pneumonia on May 15, 1909. A State University of Iowa women's dormitory was constructed in 1914 and named Currier Hall in honor of Celia Currier.